As an instructional designer with more than 25 years of practical experience, I still like to consult theoretical information at the start of any project to come up with a learning solution that utilizes all available resources, including business networks used to exchange transactional information. Here are some of my favorites:
Merrill’s First Principles of Instruction
Merrill’s model states that the most effective learning environment involves the participant in solving problems in four phases of learning: activation of previous experience, skill demonstration, skill application and skill integration. Content distribution networks enable publication of reference manuals, help guides and webpages that enable learning on the job to solve business problems.
Dick and Carey Systems Approach
Published in 1978, this model examines instruction as an entire system, focusing on the interrelationship of context, content and course components, including the instructor, learner and performance environment. Activities occur iteratively and in parallel rather than in a linear fashion. When employees work in different locations, online coaching and mentoring occurs using a company’s telecommunications network and IT infrastructure.
Kemp’s Instructional Design Method
The Jerold Kemp instructional design method defines nine different components. The process represents a continuous cycle of planning, designing, developing and assessing to ensure effective instruction. This model blends technology, pedagogy and content. Kemp identifies nine key elements: instructional goals, learner characteristics, task and content analysis, instructional objectives, content sequence, instructional strategies, delivery strategies, evaluation plans and supporting resources. Social media technology enables less experienced employees to connect with more experienced personnel.
Gagne’s 9 Events of Instruction
Robert Gagne focuses on outcomes resulting from training. He created a nine-step process, known as events of instruction, that contribute to learning: gaining attention, informing of objectives, stimulating recall, presenting material, providing guidance, eliciting performance, giving feedback, assessing performance and enhancing retention. Focusing on outcomes, instructional designer build training courses that make use of all of a company’s business networks to help the company achieve its strategic goals.