This rural county in the Southern Tier region of New York offers some of the best fishing in the area, including bass, trout and panfish action at Cuba Lake and the Genesee River.
- Rushford Lake – This crescent-shaped reservoir on Caneadea Creek spans 585 acres, with populations of smallmouth bass, walleye, panfish, rainbow trout and carp. Trout fishing peaks in spring shortly after stocking takes place, and bass are available all summer around rocky drop-offs and boat docks. Shore fishing is available near the dam, and a boat launch operates at Balcom Beach.
- Alma Pond – Despite its small size, this 86-acre impoundment in the southern part of Allegany County is arguably the best largemouth bass fishing lake in the region, and 20-inch fish are taken every year. Alma Pond also offers excellent crappie fishing around wood cover in spring, and year-round opportunities to catch bluegill, pumpkinseed sunfish and perch. Parking and access for car-top boats can be found on the north shore.
- Allen Lake – Surrounded by Allen Lake State Forest, this 58-acre lake is stocked with yearling brook trout and two-year-old brown trout, along with the occasional release of much larger surplus breeding stock. The depth of the lake allows some fish to survive over the winter, and Allen Lake is one of the few places where harvest of trout is permitted year-round.
- Cuba Lake – Walleye are the dominant game fish in this 445-acre man-made lake, with lots of fish in the 15- to 20-inch range. Northern pike, largemouth and smallmouth bass, sunfish, bluegill, perch, crappie and bullhead are also available. A free DEC boat launch operates on West Shore Road, and the area near the south end of the earthen dam is a popular ice fishing spot.
- Genesee River – The Genesee River offers perfect stream habitat for smallmouth bass, with abundant fish in the 12- to 16-inch range around deep holes, along rocky shorelines, below rapids and near bridge structures. Brook, brown and rainbow trout are stocked at several points along the length of the Genesee. Access for shore fishing is available in the communities of Wellsville, Belfast and Fillmore, among others, and most sections are perfect for canoes and kayaks.