Gender and Cultural Issues in Leadership
Keisha Lanell Merchant
Doctorate in Education, Organization Leadership
Instructor, Dr. Shane Howell
Foundations of Leadership/ L7101 A02
June 25, 2014
The Kohlberg’s theory, (1981), Joanne Martin’s theory (1990), and Schein (1992) theory, pertain to
moral development, a feminist perspective and the measurement of commitment. The patterns of
these gender based theories are centered around the issue of personal style and tone in leadership.
The leadership of a person seem to be judged based on the examination of peers in each industry. The
pioneers set the bar for leadership, and many theorists set the standard based on these evaluations of
leaders that demonstrated traits, characteristics, strategies and models that are duplicated or repeated.
Kohlberg’s (1982) theory, examines the moral development of women and men. Martin’s (1990) theory focus on the equality perspective of leadership, and Schein’s (1992) theory concentrates on the measurement of commitment of women and men in their leadership engagement. The comparison of these theories with some contrasts of strengths and weakness of these theories with militarist, Marxian and non-Marxian materialist theories, (Sanderson, Heckert, & Dubrow, 2005).
For an example, the militarist, Marxian and non-Marxian materialist theories (Sanderson, Heckert, et.al., 2005, Abstract) pursues that a society with more men, masculinity traits tend to lean towards war, domination and enslavement to women. Therefore, the militarist theory in comparison with Martin’s (1990) theory for equality would not happen under these conditions of environment, politics and educational systems for progress of gender justices. Leadership roles in these conditions would not extend the rights to women as leaders, executives and so forth, as to church and religion over the years, these practices have been dominant in most societies at large. Yet, the critical component is that the population of women exceed double over men in this generation.
Therefore, the age is shifting from militarist into feminist leadership. Women are interested in the opportunities to be leaders and executives over their own lives as ownership and autonomy to their own well being. This in turn creates some movement of human awareness that gender should be examined with the lens of equality for women and men. In this generation the sexuality of Bisexual, Homosexuality and sexualities that choose to be unlisted, creates a new forum of discourse in the scientific world. The issues of leadership and theories of leadership force scientists and scholars to examine the strengths and weakness of leadership roles and tasks. The task and the experience to integrate accomplishment within an operational system.
Key Themes Analysis
The Kolberg’s theory compared to the Alexander’s theory of the “Binary Discourse of Civil Society” (Alexander, 2000, Abstract), indicates that the Kolberg’s theory of the “Moral Maturity” can be challenged through the engagement of civil discourse. The gender issue of moral maturity becomes an evaluation of what is a measurement to variables and within the snow ball effect, what was the cause and the effect? The Kolberg’s theory’s strength display dominance and power as a construct role for conditioning men to be emotionally detached, and within a lack of emotional intelligence, this morality is based on following orders and not following ethics or empathy. This binary discourse of civil society theory becomes a theory that examines Kolberg’s theory (1981) of logic and uncertainty through examination and assessment of following conditions or evaluating constructs in conditions which exemplifies the heuristic notion of self-actualization through the process of self-awareness. Although Kolberg’s theory (1981) ignites the conversation on moral maturity, the incomplete factor in this theory is the evaluation and assessment of all conditions that becomes the collection of the cause and effect of the notion that people are conditioned therefore they have learned behavior. This element rules out the theory as a weakened theory and ineffective theory on the scale of men and women. The notion that leaders are effective with a moral maturity, may questioned the investigation of psychological
health to prepare the moral code. In turn, this conclusion for the Kolberg’s theory qualitative factor in this analysis that the patterns of behavior becomes a condition and learned behavior therefore, it is ineffective as a gender role. The gender role becomes a variable of learned behavior and a condition based on an advanced knowledge base or a lack of knowledge of the behavior. The leadership role as a quantitative variable collects data, synthesize data that demonstrate evidence, track records, credibility and validity to create a code that consist of inclusivity whereas this gender base segregation demonstrates a small selection of evidence to provide any solid outcome and results.
The feminist notion of Martin’s theory (1990) in comparison to the Marxist theory can be argued of construction in elements of conditioned behavior that leave women alienated and isolated from their own moral codes that demonstrates superiority and maturity on levels unannounced or uncovered by the masculinity notion of Kohlberg’s theory (1981). The effect of women performing leadership or executive decisions as a qualitative notion begins with the theory of nurture and emotional intelligence as a logic of catering and collaborating. The argument of morality and maturity esteems the welfare and humanistic role of compromise and negotiation that may lead to some give and take within the grayish lines. Therefore, the learned behavior of young girls, following orders of their fathers, who isolate and alienate their daughters to a servitude complication to men, eliminates their moral maturity through the sacrificial component and element of deviation that is approved in the society at large. This creates a conflict in gender of femininity to resolve differences through service and approval rather measurement and assessment of behavior. As a quantitative notion, the feminist notion of Martin, (1990) creates some backlash on the component of leadership as a Marxist society rather than a social just society of equality using the components of learned behavior. The learned behavior constructs the element of standards. These standards are created by the conditions of the leader regardless of the gender, the learned behavior or conditioned in the upbringing. The conclusion of this theory is based on the continuum of decision making based on learned behavior and conditions of the environment as a child development complication.
Schein’s theory, (1990) and Wong theory, (2003) demonstrates a solid notion of the “Ever Hostile Environment” that measures and examines the realities of society and its complications and intersections of gender and culture. The social system becoming purposeful and effective through evidence and case building structures without the heuristics of self-centered complications that conflict the matters. The Schein’s theory of “Commitment” displays evidence that in each environment, compared to the non-Marxian materialist theories, based justices on evaluating and investigation of action, intent and the construction of learned behavior from all elements, variables and deviations to that element. Leadership productivity is no longer based on the values of morality, a construction of gender or culture, but the basis of mathematical evidence of tracing decline with incline notions as to qualitative and quantitative approaches to measure and evaluate the continuum of applied developments as to conflict, behavior or the results of a group in a work place or in a public setting.
Effective Approach to Organization Leadership
The formal and informal recognition of rights, (Alexander, 2001), displays the process of mathematical computation for evaluation, examination and assessment of what is a right, the morality code for a society and the ethics of a community. The basis for gender and cultural issues are based on equality or inequalities to these rights as a whole. The leadership in Miaa Tipx Corps, are considered an equal opportunity employer. Therefore, incarcerated and post after care transitional programs are included in this environment. The environment must include other elements of communities who are considered as unequal to the corporate executives. This calculation was concluded through the use of gathering information of: social structures, archival historical accounts of incline and decline behavior in societies, communities and economies. The progress or regression of conflicts, resolutions and strategies used over time. The number of cases that were identified within this small selection of investigation began with the corporations in comparison and contrast with historical empires, dynasties and merchants.
This conclusion for this feminist notion of equality, generates some controversy and argument on the reverse notion of psychological trading places. Therefore, the deviation to this investigation starts with the assessment and examination of the investigator. The skills are exemplified through heuristics or interdisciplinary competency to reach an expansion of discussion. The qualifications of a leader begins with the vast collection of application and information that can be considered as useful, well established and assessed as a track record of evidence to construct behavior that is effective and considered as civil just for all populations.
The conclusion to these three theories with the comparison and contrast of their shadow theories, build a case that construction of identity which is an argument for the strengths of these theories that leadership is a subjective rule, or code. In turn, the hostility or decline of morale in teams or group collectivity show evidence that objective rules or codes still have an undertone of heuristics due to the self-centralization of the identity building the system, the engineer or investigator of the code, which is the leader, the decision maker.
The complication of each theory which is the weakness of each theory is the lack of qualitative and quantitative maturity in examination, evaluation and assessment to the progress of individuality within a group or a team to comply with equal processes that generate stronger elements of development for each individual. The leader collects data for categorizing each team, without the consciousness of inequality or alienation which leads to isolation, segregation and division. This conclusion builds the case that poor leadership decline progress over time, therefore, sustainability is not part of the formula or equation to social constructs or social rehabilitation. This conclusion displays the element of deviation and lack of application to generate sustainability within all environments regardless of the factors of approved or disapproved elements involved.
Alexander, J. (2000). Theorizing the good society: Hermeneutic, normative and empirical discourses. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 25(3), 271.
Alexander, J. (2001). The long and winding road, civil repair of intimate injustice,
Argosy, (2014). Gender Issues and Leadership, Moral Maturity.
Kohlberg, L. (1981). Essays on moral development: Vol. I. The philosophy of moral development. San Francisco, CA: Harper and Row.
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2005). Women in the labor force: A databook updated and available on the Internet [Press release].
Argosy, (2014). Organizational and Cultural.
Schein, E. H. (1992). Organizational culture and leadership (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Kong, S. (2003). A portrait of chinese enterprise through the lens of organizational culture,
Sanderson, S. K., Heckert, D. A., & Dubrow, J. K. (2005). Militarist, marxian, and non-marxian materialist theories of gender inequality: A cross-cultural test*. Social Forces, 83(4), 1425-1441.