Effects of Leadership: Theories in the 21st Century
Keisha Lanell Merchant
Argosy University, 2014
Foundations of Leadership
Dr. Shane Howell; M4A2
Argosy University, Chicago IL.
This is a review of literature in the theme of leadership approaches. The critiques, affirmations, recommendations, foundation and projections of best practices, effective approach and decreasing defects in procedures, processes and pedagogues.
Critique and Introduction
This literature review’s themes are contingency and path-goal theories and models of leadership within these two theories. The research is scoped around the leadership approach, style and framework for the investigation of virtual reality worlds. The purpose of this research and literature review is to pin point the story board of the 21st century virtual reality worlds for gaming, simulations and trainings for the business world’s populations. The leadership models that will identify with the most effective usage for mass production in management of the masses through gaming and holograms. The flow of this literature review will define the concern of leadership behavior, the role of the follower and the employee, and finally the strategy that will compensate all the variables involved. These seven articles build a claim to the structure of the effective approach to build the 21st century scripts for business industries as to the entertainment, gaming worlds and virtual reality simulations, holograms to perform database intelligence as to A.I. (Artificial Intelligence), Robotics, and all internal or external technologies that may need personalty designs implemented for service and productions. The interest in building leadership models for memory banks as to such projects as genome projects, “Vulcan” technologies that persist of evolving information by implementation systems into technologies that increase human like behavior and interaction systems. This connection of study of leadership approach may be challenged as a transition from human interaction of historical evidences and calculations, shifted into technologies of unknown capabilities to perform daily operations in a system and organization to increase profits without losing the human interaction.
The goal of this literature review is to understand how human behavior matters within the scope of operational value and profits. The transitional aspect of bridging the gap of human behavior into technology and piloting into planetary investigations for new life, begins, with the study of leadership models to increase effectiveness, practice, profits and accountability. The comparison and contrast of contingency leadership theory and goal-path leadership theory, the weaknesses and strengths of these two theories with the purpose and objective to implement the best theories, approaches, models and practices into technological intelligence for future designs of new formulas to program and reprogram entities or created entities. What are the costs and side effects of pulling together the best, effective framework of styles, approaches, theories, practices, and effective models, processes and pedagogues to build new “followers,” “employees,” and “populations,” of entities that will cooperate, eventually compete and cause future complications or complexities that may show a level of defects. This review of Albritton (2009), Hannay (2009), Malik, Hassan (2014), Mysirlaki (2011), Malik, Hayyat, Shamsa, Hassan, Hanid (2014), and Puni, Ofei, Okae (2014), will be used to connect the variables to the structure of building the strategy for futuristic projections of programming, training and teaching a born or created (made) leader within their community or organization. Whether the leader must function as a team player or captain, this review will increase the scope of the future world in virtual reality or real time. The analysis of why these theories, approaches, styles and practices are chosen to be the best underline materials for integration and implementation procedures.
Foundation and Analysis
The contingency theory, task or relationship, both aspects may suggest that leaders need to conform to their situation, or circumstance to be useful and effective. Abritton, (2009), suggest that individualism may outline this theory as a foundational approach to selecting a leader with the best skills within an individual’s style to handle any given situation within a task or within a relationship. The contingency theory is focused on the “best one” (Hannay, 2009, para. 1). The best man wins. This leadership approach foundation seem somewhat exclusive using the model of feminism to examine and evaluate the heuristics in its model. The foundation strengths of contingency theory in leadership is the natural born charismatic leader that may have a strong style of influence. The chemistry to move populations as the pied piper, traditionally creating a podium to raise his or her skills on heights for all to follow. The contingency theory works for the task and relationships model to follow a geat leader model. The practice to have the best practices to duplicate becomes this theory’s strong point view lens. The courageous man makes it easy to be effective to develop leadership skills that are influential to follow into hard tasks and unbearable, difficult and complex situations with personalities and circumstances. The influence of a contingency style model of a leader leads by model and not by principles, formulas or calculations, but as a navigator, leads the populations by influence. The strategy must be implemented by duplication. This foundational theory leaves out the aspects of teaching populations who have different learning styles as to auditory or kinetics.
The path-goal theory for leadership focuses more on the behavior of the leader. The approval ratings of a leader. (Malik, Hassan, 2014, para. 1) The foundational aspect of this theory focus on the behavior of the leader, the strategies, and the ability of the leader to influence through their environment. This theory is more of the mission and goals of the leader rather the vision and dream of the leader. The step by step approval ratings of the leader. The focus on how a leader lead through applications. The mix-methodology of both styles would create a dynamic leader that portrays the collaboration of vision and mission through applications and visuals. The weaknesses for both is that one or the other will find defects within their followers and choice of learning to fit their own customization for profitability through consumers and stakeholders of decision maker within the scope of selection. In this case, these theories, will show in surveys and questionnaires whether in quantitative or qualitative measurements that the variables of profits and populations will heavily rest on popularity and trends.
The virtual reality worlds, holograms, programming the 21st century using natural selection or controlled environments have challenged the scientific world with the ethical value of making the perfect leader that brings the greatest returns of investment, eliminate defects, and produce the highest production time within the life cycle of its course. The challenge in this aspect to determine whether or not leadership models, theories as to contingency and path-goal have questioned the sanction of its value for the unknown and uncertain values of situation and relationships within a task. The recommendation for these theories is to based the theory on the patterns and value of assessment for results. The case by case value for each selection may create a complexity to choose a leader in interviews for a task if the company is task-oriented. The relationship values are for companies that need leaders that are versatile in building relationships, profits without losing influence. The finally aspect of path-goal leadership to build organizations based on a mission and the applications which may increase the standardization process of a company and step by step agenda rather adaptive management systems that allows creativity and flexibility for change and adjustments. The recommendation for multi-player gaming and programming leaders in virtual reality worlds, entertainment or simulations for training and teaching, may include a mix-methodology for aggressive environments, at-risk environments that decrease in value due to environmental injustices, high hegemonic cases, and heuristics of self-defeating patterns that need complex leaders to be mufti-dimensional strategists. (Mysirlaki, 2011, para. 1). In this dimensional world, training leaders and selecting leaders based on natural born aspects of leadership, mostly charismatic leaders, contingency leadership would be the idealistic approach into leadership. The reason for contingency leadership is for reasons of natural born instinctive value to influence people and populations with natural responses. This would create a faster and increase faster responses from populations that are influenced by this type of leadership style.
Discussion and Conclusion
For further discussion, the path-goal leader must developed the vision whereas the vision is automatic and naturally implemented, the leader using the step-by-step model, may increase stability and structure for those who are in need of high security and disciplinary processes to stay on task. (Hayyat, Malik, Shamsa, Hassan, Hanid, 2014, para. 1). This is not the idealistic model, since most populations enjoy their freedom, and ability to make creative designing left up to their own destination and customization processes for individuality. This is not my recommendation, though many organizations use this style, this would not be the idealistic style or popular style for mass populations. This style is ideal for security institutions with high mortality rates and high crime rates. Once the statistics change in any environment, the recommendation is to have leadership styles change as well.
The illustration used in this review is China’s quality control assessments and management model for path-goal leadership, (Daniel, Lee, Reitsperger, 2014, para. 1). The approach to use this style with a populations with low crime, low statistical value of mortality rates, would decrease morale eventually without some aspect of contingency leadership roles within the team setting of leadership, execution or management. The micro-management model may lead to some defects in the system of generating resistance within the scope of lack of relationship building within management structures. On the other hand, financial performances as to Ghana, (Puni, Ofei, Okae, 2014, para. 1), it is evident that financial micro-management may be worthwhile for path-goal leadership styles. The industry indicates which model is best or which theory would work best for managing the populations within each given community and organization. In all aspects, the leaders that practice any of these styles will not forget the follower in their approach to influence and management, (Yun, Cox, Sims, 2006).
Albritton, F. P. (2009). A cultural contingency leadership model for multinational joint ventures . Rochester: Social Science Research Network. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1436722
Hannay, M. (2009). THE CROSS-CULTURAL LEADER: THE APPLICATION OF SERVANT LEADERSHIP THEORY IN THE INTERNATIONAL CONTEXT. Journal of International Business and Cultural Studies, 1 , 1-12. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/759646745?accountid=34899
Malik, S. H., Aziz, S., & Hassan, H. (2014). Leadership behavior and acceptance of leaders by subordinates: Application of path goal theory in telecom sector. International Journal of Trade, Economics and Finance, 5 (2), 170-175. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.7763/IJTEF.2014.V5.364
Mysirlaki, S. (2011). Leadership in a networked world: The case of massive multiplayer online environments. Paper presented at the 725-XVI. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1009900816?accountid=34899
Yun, S., Cox, J., & Sims,Henry P.,,Jr. (2006). The forgotten follower: A contingency model of leadership and follower self-leadership. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21 (4), 374-388. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02683940610663141
Daniel, S. J., Lee, D., & Reitsperger, W. D. (2014). Raising quality consciousness among chinese manufacturing personnel: Testing the effectiveness of performance management tools. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 31 (2), 549-573. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10490-013-9366-4
Puni, A., Ofei, S. B., & Okoe, A. (2014). The effect of leadership styles on firm performance in ghana. International Journal of Marketing Studies, 6 (1), 177-185. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1510283174?accountid=34899